Search the Article Database:

Search our library of articles, papers and other published materials. You can use keywords or boolean-style search:

A guide to estimating the age of Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi)

This is a guide for estimating the age of Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) with noninvasive methods.  Giraffes are commonly categorized into three age classes: calf (0 – 1 year), subadult (1 – 5 years) and adult (> 5 years). This categorization, though somewhat arbitrary, has its origins in giraffe life history. After birth, calves remain with their mothers for 12 – 18 months. Age at first reproduction varies but is usually around 4 – 5 for females and 7

View Details + Download

Evolution of ruminant headgear: a review

The horns, ossicones and antlers of ruminants are familiar and diverse examples of cranial appendages. We collectively term ruminant cranial appendages ‘headgear’; this includes four extant forms: antlers (in cervids), horns (in bovids), pronghorns (in pronghorn antelope) and ossicones (in giraffids). Headgear evolution remains an open and intriguing question because phylogenies (molecular and morphological), adult headgear structure and headgear development (where data are available) all suggest different pictures of ruminant evolution. We discuss what is known about the evolution of

View Details + Download

Developing models for mother–infant behaviour in Black rhinoceros and Reticulated giraffe (Diceros bicornis michaeli and Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) at Brookfield Zoo, Illinois

For over a decade the behaviours of mothers and newborn calves of Black rhinoceros Diceros bicornis michaeli and Reticulated giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata have been observed at Brookfield Zoo during the critical first few weeks post-partum. Consistent patterns were seen for individuals within species, allowing models of time budgets, including ranges of variability surrounding each behaviour, to be developed. Once the model is created any data collected for neonates can be compared to the mean values in the model so

View Details + Download