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The implications of the reclassification of South African wildlife species as farm animals

The Government Gazette No. 42464 dated 17 May 20191 amended Table 7 of the Animal Improvement Act (Act no. 62 of 1998), which lists breeds of animals, to include at least 32 new wild animal species, including 24 indigenous mammals. The list includes threatened and rare species such as cheetah, white and black rhinoceros, and suni. Some alien species such as lechwe, various deer species and rabbits are also included. The cornerstone of the original Act is ‘To provide for

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The behaviour and dietary preferences of southern giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) on the umphafa private nature reserve, kwa-zulu natal

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) has been severely neglected among the scientific community in terms of research. This investigation explores their behavioural patterns with focus on feeding behaviours and dietary preferences under influencing factors, which provides vital information for conservation in situ and population management ex situ. The behaviour and dietary composition of nine Southern Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) was observed in situ over a period of seven weeks. Dietary composition was recorded on a time sheet correlated with behavioural observations

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Outlines of wildlife conservation in Angola

A review of the history and present status of wildlife conservation in the Portuguese west African state of Angola is presented. The geomorphology, geology, climate and major biogeographic divisions are briefly described and the history of wildlife legislation and administration reviewed. The present status of existing conservation areas, wildlife utilization, threatened ecosystems and rare species is discussed. Research priorities are noted and future trends in conservation policy outlined.

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Giraffa camelopardalis, Giraffe Assessment by: Muller, Z. et al.

Taxonomic Notes: The IUCN SSC Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group (GOSG) currently recognizes a single species, Giraffa camelopardalis. Nine subspecies of Giraffes are currently recognized (Dagg 2014), although some authorities dispute this taxonomic classification (e.g., Groves and Grubb 2011). Several subpopulations of Giraffe, resident in northern Botswana, northwest Zimbabwe, northeastern Namibia and southwestern Zambia, are potentially either G. c. angolensis, or G. c. giraffa but the continued accumulation of information indicates that a future reassessment might be in order. Until

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Assessment of giraffe populations and conservation status in East Africa

Populations of giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis are declining in the wild, with some populations having suffered an 80% decline in the past ten years. In comparison to other large African mammals, giraffes have been largely overlooked in terms of research attention and conservation action. In recent years, the extent to which giraffe populations have declined across Africa has only just started to become apparent. Currently (as of May 2016), giraffes are listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of

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Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores

Large wild herbivores are crucial to ecosystems and human societies. We highlight the 74 largest terrestrial herbivore species on Earth (body mass>–100 kg), the threats they face, their important and often overlooked ecosystem effects, and the conservation efforts needed to save them and their predators from extinction. Large herbivores are generally facing dramatic population declines and range contractions, such that ~60% are threatened with extinction. Nearly all threatened species are in developing countries, where major threats include hunting, land-use change,

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Early detection of declining populations using floor and ceiling models

1. Within Caughley’s (1994) declining population paradigm for conservation, we develop a realistic method of detecting population changes using floor and ceiling population models. 2. A theoretical framework for detecting declining populations is presented and applied to four ungulate species from Kruger National Park, South Africa. 3. Census data are fitted to a non-linear autoregressive population model. Based on this model two auxiliary models, called the floor and ceiling models, are derived. These models predict the upper and lower threshold

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Where is the game? Wild meat products authentication in South Africa: a case study

Background: Wild animals’ meat is extensively consumed in South Africa, being obtained either from ranching, farming or hunting. To test the authenticity of the commercial labels of meat products in the local market, we obtained DNA sequence information from 146 samples (14 beef and 132 game labels) for barcoding cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and partial cytochrome b and mitochondrial fragments. The reliability of species assignments were evaluated using BLAST searches in GenBank, maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis and the character-based

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The Giraffe Biology, Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour (Book)

In one form or another, giraffes have been around for a very long time. And so has Homo sapiens. The interaction between giraffes and humans starts way back in prehistory, and rock art (paintings and engravings) is found all over Africa from Morocco, Algeria and Libya in the north, through Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Tanzania in the east, to Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Mozambique in the south (Le Quellec 1993, 2004; Muzzolini 1995). Wherever, in fact, there has been savannah.

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How many species of giraffe are there?

In a recent paper in Current Biology, Fennessy and colleagues [1] conclude that there are four species of giraffe and that their numbers are declining in Africa. Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are presently classifi ed as one species, with nine subspecies, which are considered ‘Vulnerable’ on the IUCN Red List [2]. The present consensus of one species divided into nine subspecies has previously been questioned (Supplemental information), and Fennessy and colleagues [1] provide another viewpoint on giraffe taxonomy. The fundamental reason

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