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The structural organization of the carotid arterial system of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

Carotid arteries in the giraffe were removed and their structural organization studied with light microscopy. It has been shown that the carotid artery has a largely muscular structure in the adult except for the carotid baroreceptor area located at the carotid‐occipital junction. The fetus carotid has an elastic structure in its caudal portion and a musculo‐elastic structure in its cranial portion. It is proposed here that the muscular structure of the carotid arterial system constitutes part of the structural mechanism

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Cerebral perfusion pressure in Giraffe: Modelling the effects of head-raising and – lowering

Loss of consciousness caused by positional changes of the head results from reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF). CBF is related to cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). CPP is the difference between mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the head and intracranial pressure (ICP). The positional change of the giraffe head between ground level and standing upright is the largest of all animals yet loss of consciousness does not occur. We have investigated the possibility that an increase in CPP protects giraffe from

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Harvey Cushing and the regulation of blood pressure in giraffe, rat, and man: introducing ‘Cushing’s mechanism’

The fundamental mechanism that underlies essential hypertension is a high total peripheral resistance. We review here possible origins of high total peripheral resistance in physiologically hypertensive giraffes, spontaneously hypertensive rats and humans with essential hypertension. We propose that a common link could be reduced brainstem perfusion, as first suggested by Cushing in 1901. Any tendency towards reduction of cerebral blood flow to the cardiovascular control centres in rest and sleep will be prevented by activation of a response arising in

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