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A note on foetal growth and development of the giraffe Girafla camelopardalis girafla

The growth of the foetus of the southern giraffe is discussed. Gestation period is calculated as 457 days being the mean of 48 observations of other workers. Birthmass is taken as 102 kg from measurements on wild giraffe. This is almost twice as great as some published figures for captive giraffe. However, subspecies also differ. Foetal growth followed a typical “J” shaped curve when plotted from the mass of 24 foetuses. The increase in vertebral column length followed a straight

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Shedding light into the dark: Age and light shape nocturnal activity and sleep behaviour of giraffe

The interaction of internal clocks and environmental conditions determines the daily behavioural rhythm of an animal. Due to the strong influence of light, these circadian rhythms oscillate in mammals over a cycle length of about 24 h, equivalent to the daily light-dark cycle. The relation between activity and rest within this cycle is species-specific and age dependent. Since strong deviations from existing rhythms can harm health seriously, the observation of animal behaviour using activity budgets is a common tool to

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Giraffes go for more: a quantity discrimination study in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)

Many species, including humans, rely on an ability to differentiate between quantities to make decisions about social relationships, territories, and food. This study is the first to investigate whether giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) are able to select the larger of two sets of quantities in different conditions, and how size and density affect these decisions. In Task 1, we presented five captive giraffes with two sets containing a different quantity of identical foods items. In Tasks 2 and 3, we also

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Sonomorphology of the reproductive tract in male and pregnant and non-pregnant female Rothschild’s giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis rotschildi)

The application of real-time-B-mode ultrasonography to wild and zoo animal medicine has been shown to improve the understanding of reproductive physiology in many species. Ultrasound technology is especially helpful for monitoring urogenital health, which in turn has advantages for giraffe breeding and welfare in captivity. This study aimed to ultrasonographically describe the genital organs of reproductively healthy male and female giraffes. Through the use of a restrainer, repeated rectal ultrasound examinations were performed over a 2 year period in 2.6

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Pigmented villonodular synovitis in a Reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis)

A 17-yr-old, female, captive-born reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) presented with acute-onset lameness of the right metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint. Despite multiple courses of treatment, the lameness and swelling progressively worsened over a 3.5-yr period, and the giraffe was euthanized. At necropsy, gross and microscopic changes in the right, front fetlock and associated flexor tendon sheath included villous synovial hyperplasia and the formation of discrete pigmented nodules within synovial membranes. Histologically, the nodules were composed of abundant, fibrous connective tissue with heavy

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Using a fusion of operant conditioning and TTEAM to train giraffe calves

All the giraffe calves at The Oakland Zoo undergo an extensive conditioning program to prepare them for a successful life in a captive husbandry situation. Beginning when the calf is between five and fourteen days old, keepers initiate basic desensitization and simple operant conditioning behaviors. Keepers use a combination of traditional operant conditioning techniques and the Tellington Touch Equine Awareness Method (a training system for horses) to achieve sophisticated behavioral goals. Under this comprehensive system, calves are trained to participate

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Variation in voluntary intake of feeds by captive giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis): Implications for meeting nutrient requirements

Data prompting evaluation of captive giraffe feed selection were obtained from a modified reversal study investigating the effects of dietary physical form and carbohydrate profile. Six non-lactating adult female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) were used in seven 21-day periods. Supplements were: an experimental non-pelleted browser supplement (EF) and a mixture of 75% Mazuri Browser Breeder (PMI Nutrition International, LLC, Brentwood, MO) and 25% Omelene 200 (Ralston Purina Co., St. Louis, MO) (GF). Individually housed giraffe were offered ad libitum alfalfa

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Nighttime Suckling Behavior in Captive Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

Suckling behaviors are useful to better understand mother–offspring relationships. However, in many species, knowledge about nighttime suckling behavior is sparse. In the present study, we investigated suckling behavior in four calves of the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) and their mother in the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan, by analyzing video clips of 9614 h. The relation between a calf’s age and the mean duration and frequency of suckling were consistent with the results of previous daytime studies: the longest duration

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Biologic, Antigenic, and Full-Length Genomic Characterization of a Bovine-Like Coronavirus Isolated from a Giraffe

Coronaviruses (CoVs) possess large RNA genomes and exist as quasispecies, which increases the possibility of adaptive mutations and interspecies transmission. Recently, CoVs were recognized as important pathogens in captive wild ruminants. This is the first report of the isolation and detailed genetic, biologic, and antigenic characterization of a bovine-like CoV from a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) in a wild-animal park in the United States. CoV particles were detected by immune electron microscopy in fecal samples from three giraffes with mild-to-severe diarrhea.

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