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Herbivore population crashes and woodland structure in East Africa

Between 1985 and 1991, bush encroachment was serious in Lake Manyara National Park, northern Tanzania. Shrub cover increased by c. 20%. The increase was independent of initial (1985) shrub cover. Since 1987 there has been a steep decline in the number of African elephant in the Park due to poaching. Elephant density decreased from about 6 km-2 to about 1 km-2. However, shrub establishment, as determined from counting tree-rings, preceded poaching. Shrub establishment in two areas of the Park coincided

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