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Osteophagia and bone modifications by giraffe and other large ungulates

Ungulates often gnaw on animal bones, antlers, horns, and ivory in order to maintain certain nutritional requirements. The resulting modifications to bones and other skeletal elements have been variously described and reported, but are largely absent from most taphonomic reference works. Previous accounts of such gnawing behaviors have been restricted to smaller ungulates. Here we provide detailed description of large ungulates gnawing on bones from similarly sized animals, namely giraffe, camel, and cattle, from Africa, Australia, and North America. Large

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