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Impacts of COVID-19 on Animals in Zoos: A Longitudinal Multi-Species Analysis

Prolonged and repetitive COVID-19 facility closures have led to an abrupt cessation of visitors within UK and Irish zoos for variable periods since March 2020. This study sought to increase understanding of the impact of closures and reopenings on animal behaviour, thereby broadening understanding of whether zoo animals habituate to visitors. Data were collected from June to August 2020 at two UK facilities on eight species (n = 1 Chinese goral, n = 2 Grevy’s zebra, n = 11 swamp

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Giraffe: Biology, Behaviour and Conservation – Book Review

According to the preface in this volume, Anne Dagg has been captivated by Giraffa camelopardalis since she was a toddler. This is apparent in her subsequent publications. In 1976, she co-authored, with Bristol Foster, ‘The Giraffe: Its Biology, Behaviour and Ecology’, and in 1982, she updated this book. This was one of two giraffe books I bought many years ago when I was first captivated by the reticulated race of this species. The other was The Book of the Giraffe

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Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation Status of Masai Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania

The focus of this thesis is on the behaviour, ecology and conservation of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania. Giraffes are the most elegant, conspicuous and tallest animals of the African savannah. Giraffes prefer savannah and are responsible for the architectural beauty of trees through browsing. Giraffes are social but are non territorial because individuals within a group are in constant change. Females are more often in mixed herds with calves, whereas males maintain a primarily solitary life. Giraffes

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Ecology of desert-dwelling giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis in northwestern Namibia

The population size and range of giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis have been greatly reduced in Africa in the past century, resulting in geographical isolation of local populations and some herds surviving at the edge of the species’ preferred range. Numerous factors have contributed to these declines, but historical analysis indicates that habitat loss and fragmentation, human encroachment, disease and poaching are the main threatening processes. These processes can be expected to continue to impact on giraffe populations, particularly as human populations

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Evolutionary Ecology of Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Etosha National Park, Namibia

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) occupies a variety of habitats across sub-Saharan Africa. It is characterised by a loose social organisation, and a dominance driven polygynous mating system. This project sought to explain biogeographic and inter-sexual variation in pelage colouration in the context of natural and sexual selection. I also sought to test the hypothesis that in a semi-arid environment, limited resources (food and water) would predictably concentrate females, increasing the potential for dominant males to monopolise matings. I analysed photos

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Mother-young relationships in captive ungulates: variability and clustering

We recorded four measures of mother-young association and the percentage of time the young spent lying during the first week after birth for 59 mother-young pairs belonging to 22 species and seven families of ungulates. The measures of mother-young association were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with the percentage of time the young spent lying. Three cluster analyses, based on various combinations of measures, separated the bovids into two groups recognizable as `followers’ and ‘hiders’. When the

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Measuring Behaviour: The Tools and the Strategies

Animal behaviour can be viewed as a stream of elements, which, once accurately described, can be counted and timed. Data acquisition techniques and tools are reviewed, and some strategies for collection and analysis of data using PC computers are suggested. Automated instruments are not satisfactory for the study of complex behaviour and as such systemic observation remains irreplaceable. IBM PC-type computers, with a wide range of analytical software (e.g., spreadsheets, statistical packages, technical graphics), are practical for data acquisition. Several

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Brief chapter summaries of ‘Stereotypic Animal Behaviour – Fundamentals and Applications for Welfare’ (2nd ed.)

Repetitive, abnormal behaviour patterns are performed by tens, perhaps hundreds, of millions of animals worldwide: animals that live on farms and in laboratory animal facilities, stables, kennels, zoos, even in our homes. Our introductory chapter reviews the extent of research into this ‘stereotypic behaviour’ – traditionally defined as ‘repetitive, unvarying, with no obvious goal or function’ – since the book’s first edition was published in 1993. We illustrate the growing number of papers on captive animals, contrasting them with the

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The effect of increasing dietary fibre on feeding, rumination and oral stereotypies in captive giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis)

Many captive giraffes perform oral stereotypies, in particular tongue-playing, licking of objects (including conspecifics) and vacuum chewing. Typically, the diet of these large ruminants in captivity consists mostly of food concentrates, which are consumed rapidly and do not provide stimulation for their long, prehensile tongues. In the wild, browsing requires extensive use of this organ but in captivity material upon which to browse is limited. Consequently, vacuum activities, such as mock leaf-feeding behaviour, and stereotypies may develop. Rumination is also

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