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Scene From Above: Retinal Ganglion Cell Topography and Spatial Resolving Power in the Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is a browser that uses its extensible tongue to selectively collect leaves during foraging. As the tallest extant terrestrial mammal, its elevated head height provides panoramic surveillance of the environment. These aspects of the giraffe’s ecology and phenotype suggest that vision is of prime importance. Using Nissl-stained retinal wholemounts and stereological methods, we quantitatively assessed the retinal specializations in the ganglion cell layer of the giraffe. The mean total number of retinal ganglion cells was 1,393,779

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Subordinal artiodactyl relationships in the light of phylogenetic analysis of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes

Extant artiodactyls (even-toed hoofed mammals) are traditionally divided into three main lineages: Suiformes (pigs, peccaries and hippopotamuses), Tylopoda (camels and llamas) and Ruminantia (bovids, deer, tragulids and giraffes). Recent molecular studies have not supported a close relationship between pigs and hippopotamuses, however, instead grouping hippopotamuses with Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises). In this study we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of a tylopod — the alpaca (Lama pacos), the only artiodactyl suborder not previously represented by a complete mitochondrial

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Detomidine and butorphanol for standing sedation in a range of zoo-kept ungulate species

General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a

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