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Assessment of the feasibility to reintroduce Angolan giraffe (Giraffa giraffa angolensis) into Iona National Park, Angola focusing on habitat and social suitability

Giraffe (Giraffa spp.) numbers and distribution have shown dramatic decline (>30%) over the past 30 years. A century ago, the population size in the wild was estimated at >1 million individuals. At present, there are approximately 117, 000 individuals remaining, of which 50% are throughout southern Africa. This rapid decline is mainly thought to be due to habitat loss, fragmentation and degradation, and sporadic poaching and civil unrest ravaging many African countries. As a result of this decline, giraffe was

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Seasonal shifts in sociosexual behaviour and reproductive phenology in giraffe

Reproductive phenology (timing) is a heritable trait that confers a range of fitness or survival advantages. Giraffe (Giraffa spp.) breed year-round; however, some studies have suggested adaptive birth pulses, where demanding stages of reproduction coincide with seasonal increases in resource availability (phenological match). Here we use 3.5 years of demographic data to investigate the sociosexual behaviour and reproductive phenology of Angolan giraffe (G. g. angolensis) in the hyper arid northern Namib Desert, Namibia. We show that, in a highly seasonal

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Outlines of wildlife conservation in Angola

A review of the history and present status of wildlife conservation in the Portuguese west African state of Angola is presented. The geomorphology, geology, climate and major biogeographic divisions are briefly described and the history of wildlife legislation and administration reviewed. The present status of existing conservation areas, wildlife utilization, threatened ecosystems and rare species is discussed. Research priorities are noted and future trends in conservation policy outlined.

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Evolutionary Ecology of Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Etosha National Park, Namibia

The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) occupies a variety of habitats across sub-Saharan Africa. It is characterised by a loose social organisation, and a dominance driven polygynous mating system. This project sought to explain biogeographic and inter-sexual variation in pelage colouration in the context of natural and sexual selection. I also sought to test the hypothesis that in a semi-arid environment, limited resources (food and water) would predictably concentrate females, increasing the potential for dominant males to monopolise matings. I analysed photos

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Habitat heterogeneity and social factors drive behavioral plasticity in giraffe herd-size dynamics

Behavioral plasticity, or the mechanism by which an organism can adjust its behavior in response to exogenous change, has been highlighted as a potential buffer against extinction risk. Giraffes (Giraffa spp.) are gregarious, long-lived, highly mobile megaherbivores with a large brain size, characteristics that have been associated with high levels of behavioral plasticity. However, while there has been a recent focus on genotypic variability and morphological differences among giraffe populations, there has been relatively little discussion centered on behavioral flexibility

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Matrilineal population structure and distribution of the Angolan giraffe the Namib desert and beyond

The distribution maps of giraffe (Giraffa) subspecies in southern Africa are based on historical assumptions, yet some populations have likely been misidentified, hindering effective conservation efforts. Particularly, the populations in Zimbabwe are poorly studied, and translocations, such as the 1991 movement of giraffe from Namibia’s Etosha National Park to mitigate the human-induced decline of Namibia’s desert-dwelling giraffe in the lower Hoanib and Hoarusib Rivers, was concluded without consideration of genotype. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analyses from cytochrome b and control region

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Behaviour and the effect of giraffe on flora

The study has taken place in Etosha National Park whereby the behaviour and effect of giraffe on the flora was considered. The population of Etosha giraffe is a about 1800, which is high in the presence of other browsers. A lot of trees are pressurized by giraffe and a lot of individual tree spp are uprooted by elephants. The giraffe move from one place to another looking for food. The animals reconnaissance the area before they approach the waterhole. Much

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Distribution and status of the desert-dwelling giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) in northwestern Namibia

The population density and distribution of desert-dwelling giraffes was estimated in three study areas in the Hoanib River catchment, northwestern Namibia. Giraffe population densities (0.01 giraffe/km^2) were equal to the lowest recorded in Africa with population numbers fluctuating over past  decades. Sex ratios, herd sizes and age categories differed between all the study areas, while a weak correlation (r2 = 0.66, P < 0.001) in giraffe aggregation and the hot-dry season was observed in the Ombonde River. Seasonal movement and

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Analysis of Angolan Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis) Post-Translocation Movement Patterns and Implications for Conservation Management in Namibia

Wildlife translocation is a conservation management strategy that has been employed to bolster many diminishing wild animal populations. Giraffe translocations are currently being conducted in Africa, but the consequences of such remain largely unknown. In Namibia, translocations are conducted to re-establish locally extirpated populations or to recover vulnerable ones in and around communal conservancies. This study analyzed the movement patterns of six Angolan giraffes in Namibia post-translocation in three regions. Four of the six giraffes appeared to establish home ranges,

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