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Exotic hoof stock Anesthesia and Analgesia: Best Practices

Veterinary care of non-domestic hoof stock has become more common practice through the integration of veterinary medicine in state and federal natural resource management programs, zoological collections, exotic animal ranching expansion, and hobby collections of exotics. Likewise, veterinarians are expected to have the knowledge and capability to safely anesthetize and handle these animals. Anesthesia of exotic hoof stock requires the knowledge of not only the pharmacology of the drugs used but also the variation in dose response among families, genera, species,

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Comparison of anesthesia of adult giraffe (Giraffa Camelopardalis) using medetomidine-ketamine with and without a potent opioid

Two anesthetic protocols in adult giraffe were compared by retrospective study. Thirteen anesthesia records for medetomidine-ketamine (MK) and seven for medetomidine-ketamine with a potent opioid (MKO) were evaluated for differences in demographic, behavioral, drug, and respiratory parameters. Giraffe stood significantly more quickly with MKO vs MK though MK animals were physically restrained to preclude premature standing as part of normal recovery practices (5.5 min vs 21.4 min, P ¼ 0.01). Regurgitation was recorded in 5/13 and resedation in 4/13 MK

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Multiple anesthetic events in a reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis)

A 1-mo-old reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) received repeated immobilizations for treatment of a fractured left metatarsus. Etorphine and xylazine or etorphine and iso-flurane adjunct anesthesia were used for immobilization. During immobilizations, pulse oximetry and end tidal CO₂ measurement were made and correlated with arterial blood gas values. Results of observations made during sequential immobilizations suggest that young giraffe tend to hypoventilate during anesthesia, resulting in significant respiratory acidosis. By monitoring pulse oximetry and end tidal CO₂, periods of hypoventilation and

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Dystocia in a Rothschild Giraffe Leading to a Caesarean Section

A 9-year-old female Rothschild giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi), weighing approximately 900 kg, at Longleat Safari Park, Wiltshire, UK was presented with dystocia in September 2005. This paper details the surgical and anaesthetic procedures carried out performing a caesarean section to remove a dead male calf and the successful recovery of the giraffe.

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Surgical castration of subadult giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis)

Surgical castration of giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) has not been commonly performed. Large domestic animal castration has a significant complication rate that includes postoperative mortality. Documentation of castration techniques and complications in large domestic animals occurs regularly. However, literature describing castration experiences with large zoo mammals is spares. In addition, a suitable anesthetic regimen for surgical castration of giraffe has not been confirmed. Open castration using an emasculator plus ligation was performed in three subadult giraffe weighing 555-711 kg. Scrotal incisions

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The art and science of giraffe (Giraffa camilopardalis) immobilization/anesthesia

The anesthesia/immobilization of giraffe is a unique specialty due to a combination of problems usually encountered in the procedure resulting in mortality or morbidity to the patient. This paper presents a historical description of the early drugs and methods and documents of the advances made in giraffe anesthesia during the last three decades. Also included are the current suggestions for both standing sedation and anesthesia/immobilization of this unique species. Suggestions include managing the giraffe prior to, during and following an

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