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Spatial and temporal dynamics of human–wildlife conflicts in the Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem

Biodiversity conservation in developing countries is faced with many and mounting challenges, including increasing human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs). In Africa and other developing countries, increasing HWCs, particularly those adjacent to protected areas, can adversely affect local stakeholder perceptions and support for conservation. We analyzed HWC reports for multiple wildlife species compiled >23 years (1995–2017) from the Greater Tsavo Ecosystem (GTE) in Kenya to determine HWC trends. The GTE is the largest protected area in Kenya, covering 22,681 km2. Overall, 39,022 HWC

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What are the parameters that influence giraffe population decline in Africa and which solutions are practicable?

Giraffes are internationally popular in zoos and represent an emblem of the ecosystems and countries in which they live. However, despite this iconic status, giraffes are relatively poorly studied and there is a general lack of knowledge on the key factors affecting their demographic rates. In the last thirty years, giraffe populations across Africa have declined by 40%. However, this demographic decline is not homogeneous across the African continent. According to the latest IUCN red list, the nine subspecies of

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Giraffe and okapi: Africa’s forgotten megafauna

The Giraffidae family includes only two living species of ungulates: the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and the okapi (Okapia johnstoni), both restricted to the African continent. Taxonomically, the Giraffa and Okapia genera separated from each other approximately 16 million years ago (Hassanin et al., 2012), and they now exhibit as many differences as similarities. Today Okapia is represented by one species (Okapia johnstoni; Hart, 2013), though with surprisingly high genetic variation (Stanton et al., 2014), whereas nine subspecies of giraffe are

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Contemporary niche contraction affects climate change predictions for elephants and giraffes

Aim: Climate change assessments are largely based on correlative species distribution models (SDMs) that are sensible to spatial biases or incompleteness of input distribution data. We tested whether changes on the species’ climatic niche resulting from recent human-induced range contractions have a significant influence on SDM predictions of future species distributions. Location: Africa. Methods: For this study, we selected two highly detectable species with acknowledged human-induced range contractions, namely the African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis). We

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Comparison of aerial counts with ground counts for large African herbivores

1. Over the past 50 years, aerial counts have been widely used in African wildlife management; however, the accuracy of the resulting estimates has rarely been questioned. The reliability of aerial counts of large African herbivores was examined by comparing the results of a series of systematic aerial sample counts with those from a series of line transect foot counts conducted in the Lupande Game Management Area in Zambia. 2. For most large herbivore species, the estimates from the aerial

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Chapter 14: Giraffidae

792 specimens attributed to the Giraffidae were recovered by the Eyasi Plateau Paleontological Expedition (EPPE) from the three Pliocene stratigraphic units at Laetoli, with Giraffa stillei the most common taxon in all three levels. Giraffids are notably well represented in the Upper Laetolil Beds, with further evidence gathered by EPPE for the three previously recognized species from this unit. In the Lower Laetolil Beds Giraffa stillei is provisionally identified, as is Sivatherium. A third, large giraffid species may also be

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Towards understanding large mammal population declines in Africa’s protected areas: A West-Central African perspective

A raft of recent studies has highlighted a major decline in large mammal populations in many of Africa’s protected areas. A recent continent-wide assessment represented a major step forward also in terms of quantifying the decline on a regional basis, but fell short in its sampling and analysis. In this paper, a way out of the “black box” of large mammal declines in Africa’s protected areas is formulated, with the aim of assisting in the preparation of further assessments in

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The Mammals of Angola

Scientific investigations on the mammals of Angola started over 150 years ago, but information remains scarce and scattered, with only one recent published account. Here we provide a synthesis of the mammals of Angola based on a thorough survey of primary and grey literature, as well as recent unpublished records. We present a short history of mammal research, and provide brief information on each species known to occur in the country. Particular attention is given to endemic and near endemic

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Updated geographic range maps for giraffe, Giraffa spp., throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and implications of changing distributions for conservation

Giraffe populations have declined in abundance by almost 40% over the last three decades, and the geographic ranges of the species (previously believed to be one, now defined as four species) have been significantly reduced or altered. With substantial changes in land uses, loss of habitat, declining abundance, translocations, and data gaps, the existing geographic range maps for giraffe need to be updated. We performed a review of existing giraffe range data, including aerial and ground observations of giraffe, existing

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Influence of Diet on the Rumen Protozoal Fauna of Indigenous African Wild Ruminants

A study was carried out to determine if the protozoal fauna of indigenous African wild ruminants was different from that found in their domestic counterparts and if the animal’s diet influenced the number and types of protozoa. Samples of rumen contents were collected in 1997 and 2001 from various indigenous African wild ruminants in Kenya. All three ruminant feeding types were sampled: browsers or concentrate selectors (giraffe and Guenther’s dik-dik); intermediate or adaptable mixed feeders (Impala, Thomson’s gazelle, Grant’s gazelle

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