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Does gravitational pressure of blood hinder flow to the brain of the giraffe?

Vascular pressure consists of the sum of two pressures: (a) pressure developed by the pumping of the ventricles against the resistance of vessels, designated as viscous flow pressure, and (b) pressure caused by gravity, traditionally called hydrostatic, better described as gravitational pressure. In a conduit, both of these pressures must be overcome when a liquid is discharged to a higher level of gravitational potential energy. If a liquid is returned to its original level, gravity neither helps nor hinders flow

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The ecology of the desert-dwelling elephants, black rhinoceroses and giraffe of western Kaokoland and Damaraland, South-West Africa

In the western desert regions of Kaokoland and Damaraland in S.W.A. elephants, black rhinoceroses and giraffes survive under environmental conditions atypical elsewhere for them. These animals occupy a seemingly inhospitable desert habitat, are locally endangered and occur in small numbers. The first priority of this study is directed at the acquisition of the relevant data necessary for formulating those management and conservation strategies which will ensure the survival of these wildlife populations. Secondly, this study also aims at establishing whether

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