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Giraffe Plasma Bank: Protocol 2018

The goal is to reduce neonate mortalities in giraffe under human care by making fresh frozen plasma more widely available to calves with failure of passive transfer. Plasma collection via operant conditioning is ideal due to no anaesthetic agents within the plasma being collected, and highlights the importance of trained blood collection behaviors. This document provides a standard protocol for blood collection in giraffe.

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Effects of resource limitation on habitat usage by the browser guild in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa

Resource depletion and association increases in interspecific competition are likely to influence differential habitat usage amongst a guild. We tested some prominent theoretical concepts using observed differenced in seasonal habitat use amongst the savannah browser guild (elephant, giraffe, impala, kudu and nyala) in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. Herbivore locations (n= 3108) were recorded over 2 y using repeated road transects and, for elephant, GPS collars (187254 downloads). Densities were calculated using a novel GIS approach designed to be a cost-effective

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Range movements of giraffe in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

The range movements of a small population of giraffe in the Luangwa Valley in eastern Zambia were studied over a period of 4.5 years. The majority of the adults of both sexes were found to move over distances in excess of 40 km though only two, both males, moved farther than 50 km. The average home range size was 82 km^2 for males and 68 km^2 for females respectively though these figures are regarded as conservative. Twelve crossings of the

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The maximum attainable body size of herbivorous mammals: morphophysiological constraints on foregut, and adaptations of hindgut fermenters

An oft-cited nutritional advantage of large body size is that larger animals have lower relative energy requirements and that, due to their increased gastrointestinal tract (GIT) capacity, they achieve longer ingesta passage rates, which allows them to use forage of lower quality. However, the fermentation of plant material cannot be optimized endlessly; there is a time when plant fibre is totally fermented, and another when energy losses due to methanogenic bacteria become punitive. Therefore, very large herbivores would need to

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Giraffe cow reaction to the death of her newborn calf

Observations in their natural habitat of animals’ reactions to recently deceased conspecifics are rare. Documenting a diversity of mammalian responses is essential to augment our understanding of potential evolutionary foundations of both mental states and social bonds. Individuals that previously had strong social ties to dead conspecifics might be expected to display different reactions than those who did not, and the degree of investigation of carcasses, or carrying of carcasses, has led some to infer that chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes (Anderson,

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Giraffes, Rats, and Man — What is the importance of the ‘structural factor’ in normo- and hypertensive states?

The normal structural adaptation of heart and vessels to regional changes in load or/and tissue demands is surveyed with respect to its importance for cardiovascular function in normotension as well as in physiological (giraffes) and pathophysiological (e.g. human and rat primary hypertension) variants of high pressure states. At the local level it implies an entirely appropriate adjustment of cardiovascular geometric design according to principles inherent in the LaPlace and Poiseuille laws. However, when generalized to all systemic circuits, as in

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Giraffe feeding on Acacia flowers: predation or pollination?

Consumption of flowers by the following four browsing ruminant species was monitored for two years in a southern African savannah: giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros Pallas), impala (Aepyceros melampus Lichtenstein) and steenbok (Raphicerus campestris Thunberg). Flowers of Acacia nigrescens Oliver are an important food resource to giraffe in the late dry season. This is not necessarily deleterious to the reproductive potential of the plant however, as most or all African Acacia species bear high proportions of sterile flowers.

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Subfamily Giraffinae – Giraffe

Subfamily Giraffinae is a monotypic subfamily, represented by a single surviving species, the Giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis. The Giraffe , Giraffa camelopardalis, is the only extant representative of the genus Giraffa. Together with the only other living giraffid, the Okapi Okapia johnstoni, they represent the extant members of a previously more diverse group. This chapter covers a complete overview of modern day giraffe including distribution, anatomy and physiology, ecology, and current conservation status.

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Spinal cord injury during recovery from anaesthesia in a giraffe

ANAESTHESIA of giraffes carries particular risks of morbidity and mortality as a result of the physical characteristics of a large, longlegged, long-necked animal with a heavy head; death is reported in approximately one in 10 cases (Benbow and Lyon 2001, Bush and others 2002, Flach and others 2002). Mortality may relate to physical damage or occasionally regurgitation and aspiration (Citino and Bush 2007). This short communication describes an accident during recovery of a giraffe from an otherwise straightforward anaesthetic.

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