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Case Report: Severe laminitis in multiple zoo species

A 10-year record review from a zoological institution in the western USA identified four cases of severe laminitis resulting in rotation and protrusion of the third phalanx through the sole. Laminitis is reported in a Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi), a Sichuan takin (Budorcas taxicolor tibetana), a greater Malayan chevrotain (Tragulus napu) and a giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus). This is the first report of severe laminitis with pedal bone rotation and protrusion in multiple species of non-domestic hoofstock, and the

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The use of magnetic resonance imaging to better define hoof pathology in the reticulated giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

A 22-yr-old bull giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) with severely altered hoof conformation in both forelimbs was presented for necropsy following acute mortality. Due to multiple challenges that prevented safe immobilization, corrective hoof trimming procedures were never performed on this animal. To better define the extent of the damage of the soft tissue structures and bone within the hoof, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to obtain images of these structures. The MRI study found evidence of severe osteolysis,

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Clinical, Anatomic Pathological, Thermographic and Radiological Findings in a Giraffe Afflicted with Arthritis

Chronic arthritis is a known medical problem in many species also in artiodactyla. The moist coldness that exists in the latitudes of Germany enhances this condition in animals that are accustomed to dry coldness in their natural habitats. This case report shows that thermography can be used for the assessment of arthritis in giraffes. Post-mortem results of pathology and computed tomography confirm the diagnosis based on thermography. Thermal imaging is a practical, non-invasive diagnostic tool for examining animals without stress

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Surgical resolution of an avulsion fracture of the peroneus tertius origin in a giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

A 4-mo-old, 185-kg male giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented due to stifle effusion and lameness of 3-wk duration. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the extensor fossa of the lateral trochlear ridge of the femur at the origin of the peroneus tertius. Under anesthesia, dysfunction of the reciprocal apparatus was documented by flexing the stifle while the tarsus remained extended. An avulsion fracture of the origin of the peroneus tertius and extensor digitorum longus muscle was diagnosed. An exploratory arthroscopy

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Osseous cyst-like lesions in a 15 year old Rothschild’s giraffe (Giraffa camelopardis rothschildi)

Osseous cyst-like lesions (OCLLs) are commonly reported in equines (Watkins, 1999).They are uncommon in ruminants (Tyron and Farrow, 1999) and have never been documented in a giraffe. The aetiopathogenesis of OCLLs has not yet been conclusively determined. Currently there are two hypotheses; defective endochondral ossification or, that cyst development follows mechanical trauma in joints with existing trauma (Stromberg, 1979; Verschooten and DeMoor, 1982)

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Mycoplasma-associated Polyarthritis in a Reticulated Giraffe

A case of Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis was diagnosed in a captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Recurrent episodes of lameness with temporary response to antimicrobial therapy characterized the disease. After the fifth episode, the giraffe was immobilized for arthrocentesis of the right front fetlock joint. Although the culture was negative, Mycoplasma sp. nucleic acid was detected in synovial fluid using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve weeks after completion of enrofloxacin therapy evidence of Mycoplasma sp. was not detectable in the synovial

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The art and science of giraffe (Giraffa camilopardalis) immobilization/anesthesia

The anesthesia/immobilization of giraffe is a unique specialty due to a combination of problems usually encountered in the procedure resulting in mortality or morbidity to the patient. This paper presents a historical description of the early drugs and methods and documents of the advances made in giraffe anesthesia during the last three decades. Also included are the current suggestions for both standing sedation and anesthesia/immobilization of this unique species. Suggestions include managing the giraffe prior to, during and following an

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