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Hand-rearing Rothschild or Baringo giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi calves at Bioparc Valencia, Spain, and Leipzig Zoo, Germany

Hand-rearing giraffe calves is a challenging, time-consuming and labour-intensive process. There appears to be high individual variability among different calves. Different feeding schedules and milk substitutes have been used and are discussed. The use of whole cow’s milk is recommended and can be mixed with different supplements or calf milk replacers. The authors recommend weaning the calf around 1 year of age. Key-words: feeding schedule; giraffe; hand-rearing; milk composition; weaning. Authors: M. CASARES, A. BERNHARD, C. GERIQUE, E. MALO &

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Evaluation of passive transfer in captive Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model,

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Evaluation of Progesterone Levels in Feces of Captive Reticulated Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

Fresh fecal samples were collected from seven adult female reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Samples were collected for several weeks before, during, and for a few weeks after gestation. Fecal samples were analyzed for progesterone levels by radioimmunoassay. There were significant differences in progesterone levels between pregestational and gestational samples and between gestational and postgestational samples. These results demonstrate that fecal progesterone levels are useful in determining pregnant versus nonpregnant reticulated giraffe.

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Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase as a prognostic indicator of neonatal viability in nondomestic ruminants

Rapid assessment of immune status in neonatal ruminants of endangered species facilitates early intervention in cases of inadequate passive transfer of maternal immunoglobulins. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was used to evaluate suspected passive transfer status in 25 North Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis), 45 Cretan goats (Capra algagrus cretica), 20 white-lipped deer (Cervus albirostris), 25 Mhorr gazelles (Gazella dama mhorr), and 31 Soemmerring’s gazelles (Gazella soemmerringi soemmerringi). Serum GGT, measured within 48 hr of birth, was compared with clinical condition at

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Behavioral Development in Okapis and Giraffes

Observations on the behavioral development of two okapi calves and one giraffe calf were made at Brookfield Zoo. The following behaviors were monitored for 4 to 6 mo after birth: nursing duration and nursing attempts, mother-infant distance, bunting the mother’s udder, lying, moving, maternal grooming, mother and infant autogrooming, object licking, tail chewing, and contact by others in the herd. Behaviors in both species showed oscillating patterns with high levels of mother-infant contact behaviors at 3-4 wk, 9-11 wk, and

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Osteochondrosis in the distal femurs of an adult reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): Macroscopic, radiologic, and histologic findings

An adult male reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) was presented for postmortem examination. During radiologic examination of the hindlimbs, osseous cyst-like lesions were detected in both medial femoral condyles. These lesions were subsequently examined macroscopically and histologically. The gross appearance suggested a diagnosis of bilateral osteochondrosis that was confirmed with histopathologic examination. This finding has not previously been reported in giraffes. Macroscopic visualization of the major limb joints, including the femorotibial joints, is therefore encouraged in future postmortem examinations of

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