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Mycoplasma-associated Polyarthritis in a Reticulated Giraffe

A case of Mycoplasma-associated polyarthritis was diagnosed in a captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Recurrent episodes of lameness with temporary response to antimicrobial therapy characterized the disease. After the fifth episode, the giraffe was immobilized for arthrocentesis of the right front fetlock joint. Although the culture was negative, Mycoplasma sp. nucleic acid was detected in synovial fluid using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve weeks after completion of enrofloxacin therapy evidence of Mycoplasma sp. was not detectable in the synovial

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The art and science of giraffe (Giraffa camilopardalis) immobilization/anesthesia

The anesthesia/immobilization of giraffe is a unique specialty due to a combination of problems usually encountered in the procedure resulting in mortality or morbidity to the patient. This paper presents a historical description of the early drugs and methods and documents of the advances made in giraffe anesthesia during the last three decades. Also included are the current suggestions for both standing sedation and anesthesia/immobilization of this unique species. Suggestions include managing the giraffe prior to, during and following an

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Detomidine and butorphanol for standing sedation in a range of zoo-kept ungulate species

General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a

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Accuracy of noninvasive anesthetic monitoring in the anesthetized giraffe (Giraffe camelopardalis)

This study evaluated the accuracy of pulse oximetry, capnography, and oscillometric blood pressure during general anesthesia in giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Thirty-two giraffes anesthetized for physiologic experiments were instrumented with a pulse oximeter transmittance probe positioned on the tongue and a capnograph sampling line placed at the oral end of the endotracheal tube. A human size 10 blood pressure cuff was placed around the base of the tail, and an indwelling arterial catheter in the auricular artery continuously measured blood pressure.

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